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 ZNO English Practice Test 9


You are going to read a newspaper article about a musical family.
For questions 1-8, choose the answer А-D which you think fits best according to the text.

Meet the Amazing Watkins Family

The sons are composers and prize-winning musicians, while Dad makes the instruments.
Matthew Rye reports.

Whole families of musicians are not exactly rare. However, it is unusual to come across one that includes not only writers and performers of music, but also an instrument maker.

When South Wales schoolteachers John and Hetty Watkins needed to get their ten-year-old son, Paul, a cello to suit his blossoming talents, they baulked at the costs involved. 'We had a look at various dealers and it was obvious it was going to be very expensive,' John says. 'So I wondered if I could actually make one. I discovered that the Welsh School of Instrument Making was not far from where I lived, and I went along for evening classes once a week for about three years.'

'After probably three or four goes with violins and violas, he had a crack at his first cello,' Paul, now 28, adds. 'It turned out really well. He made me another one a bit later, when he'd got the hang of it. And that's the one I used right up until a few months ago.' John has since retired as a teacher to work as a full-time craftsman, and makes up to a dozen violins a year - selling one to the esteemed American player Jaime Laredo was 'the icing on the cake'.

Both Paul and his younger brother, Huw, were encouraged to play music from an early age. The piano came first: 'As soon as I was big enough to climb up and bang the keys, that's what I did,' Paul remembers. But it wasn't long before the cello beckoned. 'My folks were really quite keen for me to take up the violin, because Dad, who played the viola, used to play chamber music with his mates and they needed another violin to make up a string trio. I learned it for about six weeks but didn't take to it. But I really took to the character who played the cello in Dad's group. I thought he was a very cool guy when I was six or seven. So he said he'd give me some lessons, and that really started it all off. Later, they suggested that my brother play the violin too, but he would have none of it.'

'My parents were both supportive and relaxed,' Huw says. 'I don't think I would have responded very well to being pushed. And, rather than feeling threatened by Paul's success, I found that I had something to aspire to.' Now 22, he is beginning to make his own mark as a pianist and composer.

Meanwhile, John Watkins' cello has done his elder son proud. With it, Paul won the string final of the BBC Young Musician of the Year competition. Then, at the remarkably youthful age of 20, he was appointed principal cellist of the BBC Symphony Orchestra, a position he held, still playing his father's instrument, until last year. Now, however, he has acquired a Francesco Rugeri cello, on loan from the Royal Academy of Music. 'Dad's not said anything about me moving on, though recently he had the chance to run a bow across the strings of each in turn and had to admit that my new one is quite nice! I think the only thing Dad's doesn't have - and may acquire after about 50-100 years - is the power to project right to the back of large concert halls. It will get richer with age, like my Rugeri, which is already 304 years old.'

Soon he will be seen on television playing the Rugeri as the soloist in Elgar's Cello Concerto, which forms the heart of the second programme in the new series, Masterworks. 'The well-known performance history doesn't affect the way I play the work,' he says. 'I'm always going to do it my way.' But Paul won't be able to watch himself on television - the same night he is playing at the Cheltenham Festival. Nor will Huw, whose String Quartet is receiving its London premiere at the Wigmore Hall the same evening. John and Hetty will have to be diplomatic - and energetic - if they are to keep track of all their sons' musical activities over the coming weeks.

1 Why did John Watkins decide to make a cello?
AHe wanted to encourage his son Paul to take up the instrument.
BНе was keen to do a course at the nearby school.
CНе felt that dealers were giving him false information.
DHe wanted to avoid having to pay for one.

2 What is meant by 'crack' in paragraph 3?

3 What do we learn in the third paragraph about the instruments John has made?
AHe considers the one used by Jaime Laredo to be the best.
BНе is particularly pleased about what happened to one of them.
CHis violins have turned out to be better than his cellos.
DIt took him longer to learn how to make cellos than violins.

4 Paul first became interested in playing the cello because
Ahe admired someone his father played music with.
Bhe wanted to play in his father's group.
Che was not very good at playing the piano.
Dhe did not want to do what his parents wanted.

5 What do we learn about Huw's musical development?
AHis parents' attitude has played little part in it.
BIt was slow because he lacked determination.
CHis brother's achievements gave him an aim.
DHe wanted it to be different from his brother's.

6 What does Paul say about the Rugeri cello?
AHis father's reaction to it worried him.
BThe cello his father made may become as good as it.
CIt has qualities that he had not expected.
DHe was not keen to tell his father that he was using it.

7 What does Paul say about his performance of Elgar's Cello Concerto?
AIt is less traditional than other performances he has given.
BSome viewers are likely to have a low opinion of it.
CНе considers it to be one of his best performances.
DIt is typical of his approach to everything he plays.

8 What will require some effort from John and Hetty Watkins?
Apreventing their sons from taking on too much work
Bbeing aware of everything their sons are involved in
Creminding their sons what they have arranged to do
Dadvising their sons on what they should do next



You are going to read an article about a bird called the kingfisher.
Seven sentences have been removed from the article.
Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (9-15).
There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

A This is why a kingfisher may appear to change from bright blue to rich emerald green with only a slight change in the angle at which light falls on it.
B But his interest in this, the world's most widespread kingfisher and the only member of its cosmopolitan family to breed in Europe, was getting noticed.
C A sure sign of his depth of feeling for this little bird is his inability to identify just what it is that draws him to it.
D The movement sends a highly visible signal to rivals, both males and females, as it defends its stretch of water against neighbours.
E The bird came back within minutes and sat only a metre away.
F The photographs succeed in communicating something of his feelings.
G 'No speech, just beautiful images which say it all,' he says.
H There is some scientific truth in that story.
The kingfisher
Wildlife photographer Charlie James is an expert on the kingfisher: a beautiful blue-green bird that lives-near streams and rivers, feeding on fish.

Old trees overhang the stream, half shading shallow water. Soft greens, mud browns and the many different yellows of sunlight are the main colours, as soft as the sounds of water in the breeze. The bird cuts like a laser through the scene, straight and fast, a slice of light and motion so striking you almost feel it. It has gone in a split second, but a trace of the image lingers, its power out of proportion to its size.

Charlie James fell in love with kingfishers at an early age. 9_____ After all, it is the stuff of legend. Greek myth makes the kingfisher a moon goddess who turned into a bird. Another tale tells how the kingfisher flew so high that its upper body took on the blue of the sky, while its underparts were scorched by the sun.

10_____ For despite the many different blues that appear in their coats, kingfishers have no blue pigment at all in their feathers. Rather, the structure of their upper feathers scatters light and strongly reflects blue.

11_____ It's small wonder that some wildlife photographers get so enthusiastic about them. Couple the colours with the fact that kingfishers, though shy of direct human approach, can be easy to watch from a hideout, and you have a recipe for a lifelong passion. Charlie James's first hideout was an old blanket which he put over his head while he waited near a kingfisher's favourite spot. 12_____ But it took another four years, he reckons, before he got his first decent picture. In the meantime, the European kingfisher had begun to dominate his life. He spent all the time he could by a kingfisher-rich woodland stream.

The trouble was, school cut the time available to be with the birds. So he missed lessons, becoming what he describes as an 'academic failure'. 13_____

At 16, he was hired as an advisor for a nature magazine. Work as an assistant to the editor followed, then a gradual move to life as a freelance wildlife film cameraman. What he'd really like to do now is make the ultimate kingfisher film. 14_____ 'I'm attracted to the simple approach. I like to photograph parts of kingfisher wings ...'

The sentence trails off to nothing. He's thinking of those colours of the bird he's spent more than half his life getting close to, yet which still excites interest. 15_____ But, as Charlie knows, there's so much more to his relationship with the kingfisher than his work can ever show.



You are going to read a magazine article in which various people talk about their jobs.
For questions 16-30, choose the people A-D.
The people may be chosen more than once.

Which person says their job involves
16large amounts of paperwork?
17training high-level staff in their area of work?
18taking measures to protect public safety?
19accepting certain financial limitations?
20encouraging visitor participation?
21listening to disagreements?
22doing considerable background research?
23introducing problems that require solutions?
24balancing supply and demand?
25producing advertising literature?
26organising trips designed to increase people's awareness?
27constant updating of their own materials?
28corresponding with the public?
29working in an area that has personal meaning for them?
30working with a team of colleagues?
My line of work

Four people talk about their jobs.
A Lisa - Exhibition Programmes Organiser, Science Museum

I'm responsible for putting temporary exhibitions together. This includes planning and designing the exhibition and promoting it. I have to read up about the subject of the exhibition beforehand and then talk to important people in the area so that I can establish the main themes and aims of the exhibition, and plan what objects and pictures should be displayed. I have to make sure the public can understand the thinking behind the exhibition, which means planning interactive displays, workshops and theatre. I also have to bring in engineers and electricians to make sure the final display is not dangerous to visitors. Before the exhibition opens, I help design and write the brochures and leaflets that we'll use to tell people about it.

B Janet - Teacher of London Taxi Drivers

The first thing I do when I get here at 7.30 a.m. is check the accounts. Then I see what new maps and documents need to be produced in order to learn the 'runs' or routes necessary to pass the London taxi-driver test. By midday, about 50 students are in school, working out how to make the journeys. They work out the most direct route, using the correct one-way streets, and right- and left-hand turns. I get involved when there's a difference of opinion - like whether you can do a right turn at a particular junction. When they're close to the test, I'll give them a simple route and no matter what way they say they'll go, I'll tell them they have to use another route because the road is closed. The next student will have to find a third route and again I'll come up with a reason why they can't go that way. It's just to make them think.

C Sarah - Marine Conservationist

I live by the coast and work from home. This involves responding to telephone enquiries, producing educational resources and setting up training courses. Occasionally, I go into our main office but generally I am on the coast. I also work with schools and study centres and run courses for coastal managers and those involved in making decisions about the fate of the seas. I do things like take them out to sea in a boat in an attempt to make them think more about the life underneath them. This often changes their views as it's very different from making decisions using a computer screen. I am extremely lucky because conservation is my hobby, so the job has many highs for me. The downside of the job is that I work for a charity, so there is a constant need for more money. This means I'm always looking for more resources and I'm not able to achieve everything I want.

D Chris - Map and Atlas Publisher

My work is pretty varied. I have to make sure that the publishing programme matches market requirements, and ensure that we keep stocks of 300 or so of the books that we publish. We have very high standards of information and content. We receive many letters from readers on issues such as the representation of international boundaries and these in particular require a careful response. I discuss future projects and current sales with co-publishers. I work as part of an enthusiastic group which makes the job that much more enjoyable. The negative side, as with many jobs, is that there is far too much administration to deal with, which leaves less time to work on the more interesting tasks such as product development and design.



For questions 31-42, read the text below and decide which answer А-D best fits each gap.


'Just imagine a day without paper,' reads one advertisement for a Finnish paper company. It adds, 'You almost (31)_____ see our products every day.' And they're right. But in most industrial countries, people are so (32)_____ to paper - whether it's for holding their groceries, for drying their hands or for (33)_____ them with the daily news - that its (34)_____ in their daily lives passes largely unnoticed.

At one (35)_____ paper was in short supply and was used mainly for important documents, but more recently, growing economies and new technologies have (36)_____ a dramatic increase in the (37)_____ of paper used. Today, there are more than 450 different grades of paper, all designed for a different (38)_____

Decades ago, some people predicted a 'paperless office'. (39)_____ , the widespread use of new technologies has gone hand-in-hand with an increased use of paper. Research into the relationship between paper use and the use of computers has shown that the general (40)_____ is likely to be one of growth and interdependence.

However, the costs (41)_____ in paper production, in terms of the world's land, water and air resources, are high. This (42)_____ some important questions. How much paper do we really need and how much is wasted?

31 A positively B obviously C certainly D absolutely
32 A conscious B acquainted C familiar D accustomed
33 A providing B delivering C contributing D giving
34 A task B operation C service D role
35 A time B instance C date D occasion
36 A called on B come around C brought about D drawn up
37 A total B portion C number D amount
38 A point Bgoal C purpose D result
39 A Instead B Besides C Otherwise D Alternatively
40 A method B order C trend D system
41 A involved B contained C held D connected
42 A puts B raises C gets D places


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