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51. Mount Rushmore

    Mount Rushmore is a 6,200-foot mountain in the state of South Dakota. The faces of four American presidents--George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt--are carved into the mountain. These faces, known as the Mount Rushmore National Memorial, are the largest carved figures in the world.

    The memorial is the work of the sculptor Gutzon Borglum. The state of South Dakota chose Borglum for the job because he was famous for his huge statues. But, even for Borglum, this memorial was a challenge.

    Borglum began work in 1927. The only way to get up the mountain was on foot or on horseback. And Borglum and his helpers had to make the trip hundreds of times just to bring up the equipment they needed.

    Borglum had prepared a smaller model of the faces. Points were measured on the model, and then transferred to the mountain to show where to remove rock and how much rock to remove. Workers then used drills and dynamite to remove rock and create the faces. This work was, of course, difficult and dangerous, especially in the cold weather.

    The Mount Rushmore Memorial took fourteen years to complete. Borglum died shortly before it was done. His son finished the work. Finally, in 1941, the memorial was opened to the public. People were amazed. The faces of the presidents looked so real, and they were about sixty feet high--as high as a five-story building.


1. What does Rushmore mean?
a. A name of a mountain
b. A name of a monument
c. A name of a place of interest

2. Who are carved into the great monument in South Dakota?
a. American writers
b. American sculptures
c. American presidents

3. What is Gutzon Borglum famous for?
a. His huge statues
b. His great books
c. His politic ideas

4. How did Gutzon Borglum get to his job in mountain?
a. On foot and horses
b. By car
c. By camel

5. How long did it take to complete the Mount Rushmore Memorial?
a. 5 years
b. 10 years
c. 14 years

6. Who finished the Borglum’s huge work?
a. His brother
b. His son
c. His friend

7. What is the synonym for the word ‘carved’ (paragraph 1)?
a. Brought
b. Determined
c. Removed
d. Cut

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