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 ZNO English Practice Test 15

READING

TASK 1

You are going to read a magazine article about jet lag.
Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-H for each part (1-6) of the article.
There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).


A. What causes jet lag?
B. The effects of jet lag
C. Treat yourself to an upgrade
D. It's not how far you go
E. Learning to live with jet lag
F. The side effects of flying
G. Not all travellers are equal
H. The growth of jet lag

Jet lag - causes and symptoms

0.
There's little doubt that the increase in air travel over the last 20 years or so has led to a significant rise in the number of people suffering from jet lag. From business trips to family holidays, the start of anyone's foreign adventure can be greatly affected by jet lag.

1.
Common symptoms include being worn out and tired for days after arriving, and lack of concentration and motivation, especially for any activity that requires effort or skill, such as driving, reading or discussing a business deal. Even simple daily activities can become harder because of jet lag, and one's capacity to truly enjoy a tourist holiday is significantly reduced.

2.
Crossing time zones can cause you to wake during the night and then want to fall asleep during the day. Your bodily rhythms have been disturbed, and it can take many days for the body to readjust to the new time zone. Scientists estimate that you need one day for every time zone crossed to regain normal rhythm and energy levels. So a five-hour time difference means you will require five days to get back to normal!

3.
In addition to the above symptoms of jet lag, the syndrome is made worse by some common physical problems caused by air travel, including headaches and dry skin. It can also make you more susceptible to any colds, coughs, sore throats and flu that are floating round in the aircraft. Legs and feet can swell while flying, too. This can be extremely uncomfortable, and in some cases may prevent travellers wearing their normal shoes for up to 24 hours after arrival.

4.
There are also other factors that influence the extent to which jet lag affects people. Lack of fresh air and cramped conditions in passenger areas can make it much worse. But fresh air and leg room are expensive, so if you have the option you may prefer to spend a little more and travel first or business class - there might be more air!

5.
In addition to this, jet lag appears to affect people differently. Young children often seem immune. People who normally stick to a rigid daily routine, and who are bothered by changes to routine, are often the worst sufferers. People whose normal lives involve highly varied routines often find it easier to adjust and adapt to a disruption of normal eating and sleeping patterns. People who sleep easily can also cope better with the adjustment.

6.
The length of the flight is not the critical issue. The most important single factor is how many time zones you cross. People can suffer jet lag just crossing the United States (three hours' time change) but would be much less affected by a north-south flight of the same duration. The number of intermediate stops is also a factor, as each stop is accompanied by changes in cabin pressure. Lastly, your pre-flight condition. If you are not fit, rested and healthy you will probably suffer more from jet lag than others on the same flight.

 

 

TASK 2

You are going to read a newspaper article about family trees. For questions 7-13, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

Finding your family history on the Net

If you are researching your family tree, you're not alone. Genealogy is currently one of the most popular pastimes on the Internet, which is increasingly being used to trace distant relatives. Some of the most popular Web sites deal with thousands of enquiries and emails every month.

"The progressive breakdown of traditional family values, economic factors and freedom to travel have all spread families out more widely than was once common, and many relatives have lost touch with each other," explains Gordon Johnson, an author and genealogy expert. "Most people now interested in genealogy start by looking for family connections a few generations back, or even relatives alive today, and then get hooked on it as a hobby."

Getting started requires little more than knowing who your parents are. Then it's a simple case of tracing back your lineage generation by generation. Although several beginners' guides can be found online to help, Johnson advises that you make contact with a family history society in the area which your ancestors are from. Many of these publish helpful booklets of local history, gravestone inscriptions or census indexes.

One of the most common mistakes made by amateur genealogists is failing to get in touch with living relatives. These relatives can provide vital information on people, dates and places. Relative accounts can be misleading, but they are the most current source of family history available. Other common errors include not knowing the history of the area in which your research is being conducted or assuming that your surname has never been spelled a different way.

Another common mistake is for researchers to assume they are the only person researching a particular family line. This is unlikely: any family group spanning several generations will probably contain a few thousand living members. This means that contacting distant cousins can be a timesaving and helpful resource. This is where the Web's strength lies. As a cheap means of communicating across oceans and time zones, the Net is second to none, and thousands of family hunters log on daily to request help and information in the pursuit of their goal.

It is also important that researchers keep careful notes of their information sources. A simple filing system for accessing the data they collect is also vital. This will help to avoid confusion once the information begins to pile up. A number of specialist programs are available to help with this. If you decide to use one of these programs, shop around and choose the one which most closely matches your needs.

The problem with the Internet is that it is a very recent medium. The huge resources it offers only serve to highlight the enormous amounts of vital information that have yet to make it into digital format. For the foreseeable future, it is likely that much of the information you need will be found only in books in libraries or in national and local record offices. The online sources are growing fast, but it will be a long time before they completely replace more traditional methods.


7 Many people have become interested in genealogy
A because of Web sites on the Internet.
B because people travel more nowadays.
C because they want to make contact with relatives.
D because it is an interesting hobby.
   
8 The writer suggests that starting to research your family tree
A can be difficult.
B is best done by speaking to your parents.
C should begin by using the Internet.
D is easy.
   
9 Many genealogists make the mistake of
A believing everything that their relatives tell them.
B misspelling their relatives' names.
C not contacting their relatives.
D ignoring very important information.
   
10 The writer thinks that it is unlikely that
A only one person is researching a particular family line.
B any family group will have lots of living members.
C any family group will have few family members.
D contacting distant cousins is timesaving.
   
11 In order for their search to be successful, researchers need to
A use specialist computer programs.
B be very organised.
C collect as much information as possible.
D take notes.
   
12 Which of these problems with the Internet is mentioned by the writer?
A It contains too much information.
B It is hard to keep up with new developments on the Internet.
C Lots of information still isn't available on the Internet.
D Many libraries and record offices don't have Web sites.
   
13 In general, the writer feels that the Internet
A will soon be the most popular way of researching your family tree.
B contains a large amount of information for researchers.
C has become the best way of tracing your family tree.
D complements more traditional methods of research.

 

 

TASK 3

You are going to read a magazine article in which someone gives advice about job interviews. Eight sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (14-20). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).

GETTING OVER THE FIRST HURDLE - THE PERFECT INTERVIEW

First impressions definitely do count. How you approach your first interview will play a large part in deciding whether you get that job.Your CV and covering letter play a large part in deciding whether or not you get invited to interview. Once there, your written application will form the basis for many of the interview questions. This means that it's vital that you make sure you remember what you wrote. 0. .

14. . This will create a good impression at the interview. Also try to anticipate the questions you might be asked. 15. .

You should try to be at the building at least 15 or 20 minutes before the interview. Remember that it might take a while to park or to sign in at reception. You need to leave yourself time to go to the toilet also. If it's a cold day you'll want to warm your hands in preparation for that introductory handshake. 16.

 

Appearances are very important. You don't have to dress very formally, but make sure you look clean and tidy and your clothes are smart. A poor appearance can turn an interviewer off in the first couple of minutes. 17. . When you're invited to sit down be sure to sit up straight and look attentive. If you're offered tea or coffee it's a good idea to decline. Answering questions while drinking can be very tricky.

The first interview, usually a screening interview, may last anything from 20 minutes to an hour or more. 18. . The interviewer will want to know that you're not abrasive or autocratic and get a full picture of your personality. Be prepared for unskilled interviewers. Some of the people you meet may be unused to interviewing. 19. . It can work in your favour so long as you answer confidently.

One last thing - prepare something that you can ask during the interview about the job and your working conditions. 20. .


A. The interviewer thinks, 'If they look like that now, what might happen in meetings with our clients?'
B. A good interviewer is always impressed by candidates who have a few questions of their own.
C. A difficult interview can be a good experience.
D. Be careful, however, not to over-prepare your answers.
E. You will be asked about yourself, your sports activities, situations where you've shown leadership skills or positions of responsibility you might have held.
F. If you are invited to an interview, learn as much as you can about the company.
G. If you arrive late you will feel uncomfortable, and this will show.
H. A difficult interview need not reflect badly on you.
I. However, there's lots you can do before that.

 

 

TASK 4

You are going to read an article about weekend cycling holidays. For questions 21-35, choose from the sections of the article (A-E). Some of the sections may be chosen more than once. When more than one answer is required, these must be given in alphabetical order. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Which of the trips:

has a cathedral town as its final destination? 0
includes spending the night in a royal house? 21
offer the possibility of going shopping? 22     23
includes the option of staying an extra night? 24
is for experienced and fit cyclists? 25
is good for inexperienced cyclists? 26
begin and end with a train journey? 27     28
would be interesting for nature lovers? 29
starts in the centre of London? 30
would be difficult to do alone? 31
might be of interest to artists? 32
doesn't involve much cycling on the second day? 33
includes an overnight stop in a hotel? 34
includes the option of a visit to a historic building? 35

 

A. Waltham Cross - Bishop's Stortford - Cambridge

A relaxing, gentle ride to the university town of Cambridge. We take a train to the outskirts of London before picking up a cycle path which will take us to the beautiful countryside of East Anglia. We stop for the night at a hotel in the beautiful old town of Bishop's Stortford. The following day it's on to Cambridge, stopping for lunch in Saffron Walden. Finally we meet up with the cycle tracks that take us to the centre of Cambridge and the train home. A good trip if you're new to cycling.

B. London Central - Hampton Court - Windsor

Beginning in the heart of London, we ride out past the Houses of Parliament, along the river, maybe stopping for lunch at Kew Gardens. Then it's on to Hampton Court to visit King Henry VIII's residence and to stay the night. Like a fairy tale, Windsor Castle, home to the Kings and Queens of England and our destination, appears from nowhere. Then it's either back to London by train or maybe stay another night and relax in the castle gardens.

C. Manningtree - Hadleigh - Sudbury

Beginning with a short train ride to Manningtree, we turn out of the station on to the marsh land of the River Stour estuary, a favourite spot for birdwatchers and naturalists. Lunch is at Flatford Mill, where Constable painted his famous Haywain. In the afternoon, we continue through the East Anglian countryside. The next day we stop for lunch in the medieval village of Lavenham, and a chance to visit some of the local craft shops. To finish the ride, we continue on to Sudbury and the train back to London.

D. Headcorn - Chilham - Canterbury

A trip through the garden of England. Along country lanes in the shadow of the North Downs, soon you will have to climb the tracks that lead you over the Downs to the ancient wool town of Chilham for a well-earned rest. The next morning a short ride, via paths that wind their way through orchards and market gardens to the magnificent cathedral town of Canterbury. This trip is designed so that you will be there for lunch and have plenty of time to visit the souvenir shops on the lanes around the cathedral.

E. Guildford - Box Hill (Dorking) - Oxted - Tonbridge

If you are more experienced and in good shape, this is the ride for you. We follow the Pilgrims Way along the North Downs to the south of London and stop for lunch at Guildford. Then we climb up to the Downs escarpment. When we finally reach the top we are rewarded with a wonderful view of southern England. The following day the path takes us through woods and over golf courses, on a path that you would never find without a guide. After lunch in the magnificent gardens of Heaver Castle, with the possibility of a guided tour of the castle, we continue to Tonbridge to catch the train home.

WRITING

TASK 5

For questions 36-50, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Example:

0       A before       B early       C previous       D old

Answer: C previous

 

Parents spending more quality time

Working parents are devoting more quality time to their children than (0) generations, despite time-consuming (36) , research has shown. The findings of this study go against the (37) that modern parents, especially working mothers, spend less time with their children. The study found that parents devote more than twice as much time on the (38) of their children than they did 30 years ago. Full-time working parents were found to spend more time with their children than their part-time and non-working counterparts. This time is spent talking to children and enjoying planned (39) activities, (40) swimming and trips to museums together.

The results of the research (41) that parents devote an average of 85 minutes a day to each child. This compares with 25 minutes a day in the (42) 1970s. And it is predicted that the figure will (43) to 100 minutes a day by 2010.

The study highlighted a new concept of "positive parenting", where mothers and fathers are (44) committed to working hard to be good parents and providing the best material and emotional support for their children. The findings suggest that the "new man" is not a myth. Today's fathers were found to be more involved in their children's lives than their own fathers or grandfathers were. More fathers are said to be equal (45) in parenting.

During the study, three generations of families were (46) on their (47) to parenting. What is clear is that parents desire an increase in creative involvement with children, and for family democracy. (48) , this increase in parental involvement also (49) an increase in the stress (50) being a parent. In the future, parenting classes could become as commonplace as antenatal classes are today.


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