ЗОВНІШНЄ НЕЗАЛЕЖНЕ ОЦІНУВАННЯ З АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ
Saturday, 03.12.2016, 02:18
 
Hello, Guest · RSS
Choose here
OUR POLL
Скільки іноземних мов ви вивчаєте?
Total of answers: 2221


 Reading Upperintermediate Text 7

Annus mirabilis: 1771

The historian and author Emily Cockayne explains why 1771 is her favourite year from history.

In choosing dates for my first book, Hubbub; Filth, Noise & Stench in England 1600-1770, I did not mean to suggest that the country became a clean, quiet and fragrant idyll in 1771, but the year does mark a turning point. Many cities were being improved through street widening, paving and the development of sewerage systems. Oxford lost the Bocardo, a medieval prison once home to the Protestant Martyrs, as part of John Gwynn’s redevelopment. New bridges opened in Bath, Battersea and Perth.

1771 was a good time for neighbourliness. Interconnected and entwined living was common; neighbours met, saw, knew and cared about each other. They nursed each other through illness. This was, however, a healthy year. Many hospitals were constructed or expanded, and there was no major epidemic. Inoculation against smallpox was suppressing one fearsome disease.

In 1771 Britain was on the cusp of industrial revolution. Richard Arkwright built the first water-powered cotton spinning mill at Cromford in Derbyshire. The non- conformist spinster Eleanor Coade dumped her business partner, who had made outlandish claims about their artificial stone products. The burgeoning canal network extended markets; Josiah Wedgwood used the Trent and Mersey Canal to transport pottery from his Etruria works. In Birmingham, Wedgwood’s chums in the Lunar Circle discussed pioneering endeavours. Spending the summer experimenting with mint sprigs, mice and candles, Joseph Priestly proved that plants altered the composition of air.

Readers devoured tales about the travels of country squire Matthew Bramble in Tobias Smollett’s epistolary novel The Expedition of Humphrey Clinker. Unfortunately, Smollett died three months after the publication. Fact-seekers heaved home the new three-volume Encyclopaedia Britannica. Samuel Johnson celebrated the retention of a British settlement on the Falkland Islands (‘a colony that could never become independent’) following Spanish diplomatic standoffs.

Metrosexual men strutted in Macaroni fashions rivalling extravagant female attire. Absurdly encumbering hairstyles were mockingly engraved by Matthew and Mary Darly. Marcellus Laroon, perhaps inspired by gales which battered the country at the end of the year, illustrated more everyday folk battling "High Winds”. The sporting event to attend was a cricket match in Chertsey, Surrey. Thomas ‘Daddy’ White came out for the home side carrying a bat which was as wide as the wicket. The opposing team protested, and the "monster bat incident” prompted changes in the laws of cricket. England’s willows lived to weep another day.

Hosted by uCoz
Log in

 ЗДАЙ ЗНО НА 200 Підготовка до ЗНО з англійської мови м.Харків
     тел 0504020191 0967395153


 
 ЗДАЙ ЗНО НА 200 Підготовка до ЗНО з англійської мови м.Харків
     тел 0504020191 0967395153


 
 ЗДАЙ ЗНО НА 200 Підготовка до ЗНО з англійської мови м.Харків
     тел 0504020191 0967395153


 
 Grammar Test
     Articles and nouns


  Grammar Test
     Test on the usage of the verb tenses

  Grammar Test
     Passive Voice

  Grammar Test
     Infinitive

  Grammar Test
     Modal Verbs

  Crammar Test
     Conditionals - If I were you. If I went... If you had seen ... I would be ...


  Prepositions at, on, in      ... at home, ... on the bus, ... in the car, ...on time, ... in time,... at the end, ... in the end, ... in the morning, at night

  Prepositions with adjectives, nouns and verbs  
.. worry about, ... sorry for, ... interested in, ... good at, ...famous for, ... engaged to, ... kind of, ... fed up with, ... reason for

  Lexical Test
Common


   Lexical Test
(little, a little, few, a few)

  Lexical Test

(somebody, anybody, nobody, everybody)

  Lexical Test
(say, tell, speak, talk)


  Lexical Test
(either, neither, also,too)


  Lexical Test
(beautiful, handsome, pretty, good-looking, lovely)


  Lexical Test
(clothes and fashion)


  Lexical Test
(sport)
  

  Lexical Test
(travel and holiday)
    



Перевести
© словарь bab.la 
For friends

Ви можете згадати про наш ресурс, розмістивши у себе на сайті цю кнопку:



Щоб це зробити, просто додайте в HTML код потрібної сторінки даний код:


Statistics

Total online: 1
Guests: 1
Users: 0
Яндекс цитирования Rambler's Top100