For estate planning purposes, a family
partnership is typically a limited liability company or a limited
partnership. A limited liability company ("LLC") is an entity that
combines the limited liability of a corporation with the "pass-through"
taxation of a partnership. A family limited liability company ("FLLC")
is a standard LLC which is owned exclusively by family members. The
typical FLLC is formed with two classes of ownership interests (voting
and non-voting), and is managed by a "manager" who is selected by the
owners (or "members"). A family limited partnership ("FLP") is very
similar to an FLLC. Although, an FLLC offers more protection than an
FLP since no general partner (with unlimited liability) is required.
transfer $2 million of commercial real estate to an FLLC in exchange
for a 1% voting interest and a 99% non-voting interest. With the voting
interest they appoint themselves as the managers of the FLLC. Soon
afterward, they gift the non-voting interests to their children,
grandchildren and/or to trusts for the benefit of their children and
grandchildren (the "donees"). These gifts will be gift tax-free to the
extent of the parents' $13,000 ($26,000 for a married couple) annual
gift tax exclusion and $1,000,000 ($2,000,000 for a married couple)
lifetime gift tax exemption.
There is no gain or loss to the
parents upon the contribution of the real estate to the FLLC. The
parents, as managers, will continue to manage the real estate and can
even receive a reasonable management fee for their services. Each
member will owe income taxes on his/her/its proportionate share of the
• The future income and
appreciation on the nonvoting membership interests gifted are removed
from the parents' gross estates, even though the parents continue to
manage the FLLC. While there is a present lapse in the estate and
generation-skipping transfer taxes, it's likely that Congress will
reinstate both taxes (perhaps even retroactively) some time during
2010. If not, on January 1, 2011, the estate tax exemption (which was
$3.5 million in 2009) becomes $1 million, and the top estate tax rate
(which was 45% in 2009) becomes 55%.
• To the extent the donees are in lower income tax brackets than the parents, income tax savings are achieved.
If the gifts of the non-voting membership interests are made to a
so-called "grantor trust" established by one of the parents, the
grantor-parent will be taxed on the trust's income. The grantor's
payment of the trust's income taxes is the equivalent of a tax-free
gift to the beneficiaries of the trust.
• Because the non-voting
membership interests lack control and lack marketability, those
membership interests are usually eligible for significant valuation
discounts, ranging from 15% to 45%! Such discounts "leverage" the
parents' $13,000/$26,000 annual gift tax exclusion and
$1,000,000/$2,000,000 lifetime gift tax exemption.
An FLLC allows the donor to serve as the manager of the FLLC even if
he/she gives away 100% of his/her membership interests in the FLLC.
An FLLC makes it much easier to make fractional interest gifts of
assets like real estate which would otherwise require the preparation
and recording of separate deeds each time a gift is made.
FLLC consolidates investment assets to promote efficient and
centralized management of those assets. It also allows donors to
involve their heirs in the operation of the FLLC without losing
control. Finally, FLLCs provide the members with privacy since the
state filings and annual reports neither require the names of the
members to be disclosed nor any information regarding the FLLC's
Outside Protection. The
FLLC accomplishes the goal of protecting the members' personal assets
from business risks. Members of an FLLC are generally not liable for
the debts, contracts or acts of the FLLC. In other words, a member's
personal wealth is not exposed to the "outside" debts and liabilities
of the FLLC. Members can only lose what they invest in the FLLC.
However, this protection will not shield the FLLC's members from
personal liability arising from unlawful acts committed personally or
contracts signed personally.
Inside Protection. Conversely, the
FLLC's assets are protected from the creditors of one of the members.
The creditors of a member cannot force a sale of a member's interest,
nor do they step into the member's shoes as a substitute member. The
creditor can only apply to the court for a "charging under" to require
the FLLC to pay to the creditor distributions that would otherwise go
to the debtor/member. However, if the manager of the FLLC decides not
to make distributions, then the creditor (as opposed to the
debtor/member) may be taxed on the FLLC's undistributed income. This
potential for negative cash flow may facilitate an out of court
settlement for pennies on the dollar. Thus, the debtor/member receives
"inside" protection from his/her personal creditors.
IRS has been scrutinizing FLLCs closely and has challenged the size of
the valuation discounts applied to the non-voting membership interests.
The burden of proving the appropriateness of the discounts falls on the
taxpayer. Thus, following are the leading principles established by
recent cases to achieve the desired results:
• The FLLC must be
operated as an actual business, including maintenance of accurate
records, proper titling of assets, and compliance with applicable laws
as well as the FLLC's governing documents.
• Assets transferred
to the FLLC should not be used for the donor's personal use (unless
fair market value rent is paid), nor leave the donor without sufficient
assets to maintain his/her standard of living without having to rely on
distributions from the FLLC. Moreover, there should be no commingling
of the donor's assets with the FLLC's assts.
• When distributions
are made by the FLLC, they must be made to all members in proportion to
their respective membership interests.
the IRS has been successful in including in a decedent's estate all of
the assets that the decedent transferred to an FLP or FLLC. Under
Internal Revenue Code Section 2036, transferred assets can be included
in the transferor's estate if the transferor retained until his/her
death (1) the possession or enjoyment of the assets, or (2) the right
to determine who would possess or enjoy the assets.
IRS's recent success in some cases, the FLLC remains a powerful vehicle
for transferring wealth when properly designed and operated.
Following, is a checklist of ways to minimize an IRS attack under IRC Section 2036:
1. Include some operating business or real estate investment in the FLLC. Do not transfer personal use assets to the entity.
2. Create the FLLC well before death, and adhere to the terms of the operating agreement.
3. Do not transfer all of the donor's assets to the FLLC; and make sure the donor has sufficient liquidity apart from the FLLC.
4. Distribute profits unless needed for business purposes; and always make distributions pro rata.
5. Avoid making distributions, before and after death, to meet the
personal obligations of the donor or the liabilities of the donor's
6. Document the business purpose in the operating agreement.
7. Keep valuation discounts within amounts that are less likely to draw audit suspicion.
8. Have junior generational members contribute capital to the FLLC,
instead of relying exclusively on gifts of membership interests.
9. Have annual partnership meetings to update events; and actively manage the FLLC's assets.
10. Finally, by operating the FLLC as though the members were
non-family members, the likelihood of challenging an IRS attack should
be much greater.
In order to achieve the desired
tax results, the FLLC must have a valid business purpose. Whether a
valid business purpose exists (other than to secure tax benefits) is a
facts and circumstances test requiring the input of estate planning
specialists. In any event, the FLLC is an important technique that
should be considered as part of any estate plan, asset protection plan,
or business succession plan.
TO THE EXTENT THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS
TAX MATTERS, IT IS NOT INTENDED OR WRITTEN TO BE USED AND CANNOT BE
USED BY A TAXPAYER FOR THE PURPOSE OF AVOIDING PENALTIES THAT MAY BE
IMPOSED ON THE TAXPAYER, ACCORDING TO CIRCULAR 230.